DAX offers a set of Time Intelligence functions that simplify writing DAX expressions such as YTD, YOY and other time-related calculations. However, these functions only works when some assumptions are valid: your periods should be “natural” months and quarter. Some industries, such as retail and manufacturing, are used to accounting periods that are based on weeks instead of months. One month and one quarter are a set of weeks and a week cannot be split in different months, quarter or years. Making DAX working on these custom calendars requires you to write some DAX expression without using the built-in Time Intelligence functions.
I wrote an article, Week-Based Time Intelligence in DAX, which describes how to write the common DAX calculations required on a custom calendar. I also included two samples, one for Excel 2010 and the other for Excel 2013, so that you can easily work on both versions (as you know, downgrading a workbook from Excel 2013 to Excel 2010 with PowerPivot is not possible).
An important tip you will find is that creating a column that contains the number of days elapsed in a year (or the running total of days in the year, if you prefer) makes it easy writing the FILTER required to use the right set of days in each calculation. After all, this technique is very similar to the one you would use in SQL to perform the same calculation, for this reason DAX is considered more intuitive than MDX by developers with a SQL background.