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Adam Machanic

Adam Machanic, Boston-based SQL Server developer, shares his experiences with programming, monitoring, and performance tuning SQL Server. And the occasional battle with the query optimizer.

Bitmask Handling, part 3: Logical operators

It's been longer than I hoped since my last installment on bitmask / big number handling. Life caught up with me and I've had many thankless tasks to catch up on. But that's over now and I'm back to the general slacking that typifies my days, so welcome to Part 3, handling logical operators.

I'll be discussing four operators in this post. AND, OR, XOR, and NOT. The first three are extremely easy given the framework already built out in the previous two posts. The last one has some problems -- so I'll discuss those first.

I haven't been able to find any mathematical or computer science texts that discuss how to deal with variable-length bitmasks, which is what I'm attempting to define here. Most texts keep the discussion to, at most, two or four bytes, and even then those two or four bytes are stable. But the problem with using a variable number is that it creates some inconsistencies with regards to signing. Take this example:

 

SELECT 1 AS Oops
WHERE
-1 <>
CONVERT(INT, CONVERT(VARBINARY, CONVERT(SMALLINT, -1)))


Oops
----
1

So what's happening here? The -1 on the right side of the comparison is being cast into a 2-byte SMALLINT, then converted to VARBINARY (which produces 0xFFFF). Then it's being converted back to INT. But guess what..?

 

SELECT CONVERT(INT, 0xFFFF) AS Arrgh


Arrgh
-----
65535

So what is SQL Server telling us? That a small -1 is not the same as a bigger -1. -1 <> -1!!!

You're probably asking yourself, "what is this guy talking about, and what does any of this have to do with the topic at hand, implementing a binary NOT operation?" And if that's what you were asking yourself, then good job, because you've asked the correct question. So what do they have to do with each other?

The truth-table for NOT is quite simple:

 

InputResult
01
10

But let's delve a little deeper. The SMALLINT representation of the decimal number 1 in hex is 0x0001. In binary, that's 0000000000000001. If you run that through a logical NOT, the result is 1111111111111110, or 0xFFFE. That's -2. But remember, that's only -2 if you're a SMALLINT. If you're either an INT or a BIGINT, it's 65534. And that's just not consistent. I want to know that any equivalent number into my function yeilds an equivalent number on the way out. So NOT(0x000001) should yeild the same result as NOT(0x000000000001).

... and that result, in the function I provide, will be: 0xFE. One byte in, one byte out. Similar to some prison gang mottos, but that's a topic for a later post.

You'll notice that this is similar to the way I handled the bitmask re-constitution in the last post. So I feel pretty good about this. Sparsity is a good thing.

But this has a very important side-effect. These numbers are now officially and permanently un-signed. We can't deal with sign because we can't know which byte corresponds to the highest byte -- that's variable. And since we can't determine the highest byte, we also can't determine the highest bit in that byte, and so can't know whether or not our number is negative.

But I can live with that. And I hope you can, too. And if you can't, write a solution and send it to me and I'll post it.

So on that note, and without further ado, here's how you figure out which bit positions should be output by a NOT operation:

 

DECLARE @Bitmask VARBINARY(4096)
SET @Bitmask = 0x01

SELECT x.Number
FROM BitmaskNumbers x
LEFT JOIN dbo.SplitBitmask(@Bitmask) y ON y.Number = x.Number
WHERE y.Number IS NULL
AND x.Byte <=
(SELECT MAX(Byte)
FROM BitmaskNumbers z
WHERE z.Number =
(SELECT MAX(Number)
FROM dbo.SplitBitmask(@Bitmask)))


Number
-------
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Pretty simple, really: Split the bitmask and take any numbers within the same byte range that aren't in the bitmask. To reconstitute it, simply modify the reconstitution pattern a bit, stuff it all into a function, and you get:

 

CREATE FUNCTION bitwiseNot
(
@Bitmask VARBINARY(4096)
)
RETURNS VARBINARY(4096)
AS
BEGIN
DECLARE @BitsInBitmask TABLE(Number SMALLINT)
INSERT @BitsInBitmask
SELECT Number
FROM dbo.splitBitmask(@Bitmask)

SET @Bitmask = 0x

SELECT @Bitmask = @Bitmask +
CONVERT(VARBINARY(1),
SUM(CASE
WHEN x.Number IS NOT NULL THEN 0
ELSE BitmaskNumbers.BitValue
END)
)
FROM @BitsInBitmask x
RIGHT JOIN BitmaskNumbers ON BitmaskNumbers.Number = x.Number
WHERE BitmaskNumbers.Byte <=
(SELECT
CASE MAX(Number) % 8
WHEN 0 THEN (MAX(Number) - 1) / 8
ELSE MAX(Number) / 8
END + 1
FROM @BitsInBitmask)
GROUP BY BitmaskNumbers.Byte
ORDER BY BitmaskNumbers.Byte DESC

RETURN(@Bitmask)
END
GO


SELECT dbo.BitwiseNot(0x01) AS Not01


Not01
-----
0xFE

And of course, given the properties I described above:

 

SELECT dbo.BitwiseNot(0x0000000001) AS Not0000000001


Not0000000001
-------------
0xFE

And now on to the other three logical operations, which are much simpler...

The easiest is OR, which has the following truth table:

 

+01
001
111

And what is that similar to, in relational parlance..? A UNION, perhaps?

 

SELECT Number
FROM
(
SELECT Number
FROM dbo.splitBitmask(0x01)

UNION

SELECT Number
FROM dbo.splitBitmask(0x03)
) x

... and how about exclusive OR (XOR)?

 

+01
001
110

Similar to the UNION, but we only want intersections with exactly one bitmask position... Luckily, SQL is equipped for that:

 

SELECT Number
FROM
(
SELECT Number FROM dbo.SplitBitmask(0x01)

UNION ALL

SELECT Number FROM dbo.SplitBitmask(0x02)
) x
GROUP BY Number
HAVING COUNT(*) = 1

Finally, the AND operation:

 

+01
000
101

Just like XOR, but you need exactly two bit positions in each intersection:

 

SELECT Number
FROM
(
SELECT Number FROM dbo.SplitBitmask(0x01)

UNION ALL

SELECT Number FROM dbo.SplitBitmask(0x02)
) x
GROUP BY Number
HAVING COUNT(*) = 2

Putting it all together, I present the following OR, XOR, and AND UDFs:

OR

 

CREATE FUNCTION bitwiseOr
(
@Bitmask1 VARBINARY(4096),
@Bitmask2 VARBINARY(4096)
)
RETURNS VARBINARY(4096)
AS
BEGIN
DECLARE @BitsInBitmask TABLE(Number SMALLINT)
INSERT @BitsInBitmask
SELECT Number
FROM
(
SELECT Number
FROM dbo.splitBitmask(@Bitmask1)

UNION

SELECT Number
FROM dbo.splitBitmask(@Bitmask2)
) x

SET @Bitmask1 = 0x

SELECT @Bitmask1 = @Bitmask1 +
CONVERT(VARBINARY(1),
SUM(CASE
WHEN x.Number IS NULL THEN 0
ELSE BitmaskNumbers.BitValue
END)
)
FROM @BitsInBitmask x
RIGHT JOIN BitmaskNumbers ON BitmaskNumbers.Number = x.Number
WHERE BitmaskNumbers.Byte <=
(SELECT
CASE MAX(Number) % 8
WHEN 0 THEN (MAX(Number) - 1) / 8
ELSE MAX(Number) / 8
END + 1
FROM @BitsInBitmask)
GROUP BY BitmaskNumbers.Byte
ORDER BY BitmaskNumbers.Byte DESC

RETURN(@Bitmask1)
END


SELECT dbo.bitwiseOr(0x01, 0x03) AS Or_01_03


Or_01_03
--------
0x03

XOR

 

CREATE FUNCTION bitwiseXOr
(
@Bitmask1 VARBINARY(4096),
@Bitmask2 VARBINARY(4096)
)
RETURNS VARBINARY(4096)
AS
BEGIN
DECLARE @BitsInBitmask TABLE(Number SMALLINT)
INSERT @BitsInBitmask
SELECT Number
FROM
(
SELECT Number
FROM dbo.splitBitmask(@Bitmask1)

UNION ALL

SELECT Number
FROM dbo.splitBitmask(@Bitmask2)
) x
GROUP BY Number
HAVING COUNT(*) = 1

SET @Bitmask1 = 0x

SELECT @Bitmask1 = @Bitmask1 +
CONVERT(VARBINARY(1),
SUM(CASE
WHEN x.Number IS NULL THEN 0
ELSE BitmaskNumbers.BitValue
END)
)
FROM @BitsInBitmask x
RIGHT JOIN BitmaskNumbers ON BitmaskNumbers.Number = x.Number
WHERE BitmaskNumbers.Byte <=
(SELECT
CASE MAX(Number) % 8
WHEN 0 THEN (MAX(Number) - 1) / 8
ELSE MAX(Number) / 8
END + 1
FROM @BitsInBitmask)
GROUP BY BitmaskNumbers.Byte
ORDER BY BitmaskNumbers.Byte DESC

RETURN(@Bitmask1)
END


SELECT dbo.bitwiseXOr(0x01, 0x03) AS XOr_01_03


XOr_01_03
--------
0x02

... And finally, AND

 

CREATE FUNCTION bitwiseAnd
(
@Bitmask1 VARBINARY(4096),
@Bitmask2 VARBINARY(4096)
)
RETURNS VARBINARY(4096)
AS
BEGIN
DECLARE @BitsInBitmask TABLE(Number SMALLINT)
INSERT @BitsInBitmask
SELECT Number
FROM
(
SELECT Number
FROM dbo.splitBitmask(@Bitmask1)

UNION ALL

SELECT Number
FROM dbo.splitBitmask(@Bitmask2)
) x
GROUP BY Number
HAVING COUNT(*) = 2

SET @Bitmask1 = 0x

SELECT @Bitmask1 = @Bitmask1 +
CONVERT(VARBINARY(1),
SUM(CASE
WHEN x.Number IS NULL THEN 0
ELSE BitmaskNumbers.BitValue
END)
)
FROM @BitsInBitmask x
RIGHT JOIN BitmaskNumbers ON BitmaskNumbers.Number = x.Number
WHERE BitmaskNumbers.Byte <=
(SELECT
CASE MAX(Number) % 8
WHEN 0 THEN (MAX(Number) - 1) / 8
ELSE MAX(Number) / 8
END + 1
FROM @BitsInBitmask)
GROUP BY BitmaskNumbers.Byte
ORDER BY BitmaskNumbers.Byte DESC

RETURN(@Bitmask1)
END


SELECT dbo.bitwiseAnd(0x01, 0x03) AS And_01_03


And_01_03
--------
0x01

... And that's enough for today's installment. Enjoy..!


Published Wednesday, July 12, 2006 10:28 PM by Adam Machanic
Filed under: ,

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Comments

 

Lars Söderholm said:

Hello,it appears to be a small bug in your logical or funtion, bitwiseor.

The last order by "ORDER BY BitmaskNumbers.Byte DESC"

cannot be order by desc, because if you use the function in a nestled manner it will reverse the order of the bytes causing problematic behaviour.

Otherwise the parts i've tried works fine.

Cheers!

January 19, 2009 6:24 AM
 

Adam Machanic said:

Quick installment this time. Left-shift and right-shift operators. Left-shift and right-shift are integral

January 25, 2009 2:51 PM
 

Etienne Divina said:

Great article, making code for bitwise operation with large binary data easy to read !

But when i tested it, i noticed performances issues.

It is lot more efficient to work on slices of 2bytes and iterate.

The algo is like that :

- calculate the max length of data and number of iteration

- loop the number of slices (number of slice = CEILING(maxLength/CAST(2 AS FLOAT)))

- Work on slice of data : SET @bin = CAST(SUBSTRING(@Source, DATALENGTH(@Source) + 1 - (@sliceIndex + 1) * @sliceBytes, 2) AS SMALLINT)

I can post more if needed

January 5, 2012 8:03 AM
 

Adam Machanic said:

Etienne:

If you feel like it, you're more than welcome to share your more optimized code. Perhaps someone will be able to benefit. Personally I've never had a use case for any of this stuff. I just did it for fun :-)

January 11, 2012 10:46 AM
 

Oleg said:

Thank you for the interesting articles.

Could I ask a question.

create table t(id int, b varbinary(128))

Every bit in binary means something and I need to have possibility to check if one of bits from list (i1, i2, .., iN) checked.

I use some of your functions, all is ok. But naturally when table is large then checking subset is slow.

For example simply saying:

select * from t inner join idlist on t.id=idlist.id and substring(b, n, 1)&mask<>0

Thank you

How I can optimize this kind of tables and queries?

June 18, 2014 9:10 AM

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About Adam Machanic

Adam Machanic is a Boston-based SQL Server developer, writer, and speaker. He focuses on large-scale data warehouse performance and development, and is author of the award-winning SQL Server monitoring stored procedure, sp_WhoIsActive. Adam has written for numerous web sites and magazines, including SQLblog, Simple Talk, Search SQL Server, SQL Server Professional, CoDe, and VSJ. He has also contributed to several books on SQL Server, including "SQL Server 2008 Internals" (Microsoft Press, 2009) and "Expert SQL Server 2005 Development" (Apress, 2007). Adam regularly speaks at conferences and training events on a variety of SQL Server topics. He is a Microsoft Most Valuable Professional (MVP) for SQL Server, a Microsoft Certified IT Professional (MCITP), and an alumnus of the INETA North American Speakers Bureau.

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